How to Write a Hypothesis

 

hypothesis example in research paper

The precursor to a hypothesis is a research problem, usually framed as a tokaois.tk might ask what, or why, something is happening. For example, we might wonder why the . “A hypothesis is a conjectural statement of the relation between two or more variables”. (Kerlinger, ) “Hypothesis is a formal statement that presents the expected relationship between an independent and dependent variable.”(Creswell, ) “A research question is essentially a . Jun 20,  · Although you could state a scientific hypothesis in various ways, most hypotheses are either "If, then" statements or else forms of the null hypothesis. The null hypothesis sometimes is called the "no difference" hypothesis. The null hypothesis is good for .


Examples of the Null Hypothesis


A research hypothesis H 1 is the statement created by researchers when they speculate upon the outcome of a research or experiment. Every true experimental design must have this statement at the core of its structure, as the ultimate aim of any experiment. The hypothesis is generated via a number of means, but is usually the result of a process of inductive reasoning where observations lead to the formation of a theory.

Scientists then use a large battery of deductive methods to arrive at a hypothesis that is testablefalsifiable and realistic. The precursor to a hypothesis is a research problemusually framed as a question. It might ask what, or why, something is happening. For example, we might wonder why the stocks of cod in the North Atlantic are declining.

This is too broad as a statement and is not testable by any reasonable scientific means. It is merely a tentative question arising from literature reviews and intuition. The research hypothesis is a paring down of the problem into something testable and falsifiable. Scientists must generate a realistic and testable hypothesis around which they can build the experiment.

Some examples could be:. Over-fishing affects the stocks of cod. If over-fishing is causing a decline in the numbers of Cod, reducing the amount of trawlers will increase cod stocks. These are acceptable statements and they all give the researcher a focus for constructing a research experiment. Though the other one is perfectly acceptable, an ideal research hypothesis should contain a prediction, which is why the more formal ones are favored. Hypothesis example in research paper scientist who becomes fixated on proving a research hypothesis loses their impartiality and credibility.

Statistical tests often uncover trends, hypothesis example in research paper, but rarely give a clear-cut answer, with other factors often affecting the outcome and influencing the results. Whilst gut instinct and logic tells us that fish stocks are affected by over fishing, it is not necessarily true and the hypothesis example in research paper must consider that outcome.

Perhaps environmental factors or pollution are causal effects influencing fish stocks. A hypothesis must be testabletaking into account current knowledge and techniques, and be realistic. If the researcher does not have a multi-million dollar budget then there is no point in generating complicated hypotheses.

A hypothesis must be verifiable by statistical and analytical means, to allow a verification or falsification. This means that the research showed that the evidence supported the hypothesis and further research is built upon that. Your hypothesis should Be written in clear, hypothesis example in research paper language. Have both an independent and dependent variable. Be falsifiable — is it possible to prove or disprove the statement? Make hypothesis example in research paper prediction or speculate on an outcome.

Be practicable — can you measure the variables in question? Hypothesize about a proposed relationship between two variables, hypothesis example in research paper, or an intervention into this relationship. Mini quiz:. Consider the following hypotheses, hypothesis example in research paper.

Are they likely to lead to sound research and conclusions, and if not, how could they be improved? Adding mica to a plastic compound will decrease its viscosity, hypothesis example in research paper. Those who drink a cup of green tea daily experience enhanced wellness. Prolonged staring into solar eclipses confers extrasensory powers. A decline in family values is lowering the marriage rate. Children with insecure attachment style are more likely to engage in political dissent as adults.

This is an ideal hypothesis statement. It is well-phrased, clear, falsifiable and merely by reading it, one gets an idea of the kind of research design it would inspire. This hypothesis is less clear, and the problem is with the dependent variable.

Though this hypothesis looks a little ridiculous, it is actually quite simple, falsifiable and easy to operationalize. The obvious problem is that scientific research seldom occupies itself with supernatural phenomenon and worse, putting this research into action will likely cause damage to its participants.

When it comes to hypotheses, not all questions need to be answered! However, hypothesis example in research paper, scientists should always be alert for their own possible biases creeping into research, and this can occur right from the hypothesis example in research paper. Normative topics with moral elements are seldom neutral.

A better hypothesis will remove any contentious, subjective elements. A better hypothesis: decrease in total discretionary income corresponds to lower marriage rate in people 20 — 30 years of age. This hypothesis may yield very interesting and useful results, but practically, how will the researchers gather the data? Even if research is logically sound, it may not be feasible in the real world. A researcher might instead choose to make a more manageable hypothesis: high scores on an insecure attachment style questionnaire will correlate with high scores on a political dissention questionnaire.

Though complex, this is a good hypothesis. It is falsifiable, has clearly identified variables and can be supported or rejected using the right statistical methods.

Check out our quiz-page with tests about:. Research Hypothesis. Retrieved Sep 13, from Explorable. The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4. That hypothesis example in research paper it.

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Get PDF. Don't have time for it all now? No problem, save it as a course and come back to it later. Login Sign Up. Martyn ShuttleworthLyndsay T Wilson Don't miss these related articles:. The precursor to a hypothesis is a problem, usually framed as a question. A hypothesis must be testable, hypothesis example in research paper, but must also be falsifiable for its acceptance as true science.

Back to Overview "Scientific Method". Full hypothesis example in research paper. Search over articles on psychology, science, and experiments. Search this site :. Leave this field blank :.

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How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Steps and Examples

 

hypothesis example in research paper

 

Examples of Hypothesis By YourDictionary The American Heritage Dictionary defines a hypothesis as, "a tentative explanation for an observation, phenomenon, or scientific problem that can be tested by further investigation." This means a hypothesis is the stepping stone to a soon-to-be proven theory. How to Write a Hypothesis for a Badass Research Paper in 3 Steps. Before you start writing, you’ll need to choose a topic. It’s a given that, if you’re allowed to choose your topic, then you should choose something you’re interested in. Jun 20,  · Although you could state a scientific hypothesis in various ways, most hypotheses are either "If, then" statements or else forms of the null hypothesis. The null hypothesis sometimes is called the "no difference" hypothesis. The null hypothesis is good for .