Pros and Cons of Stem Cell Research

 

embryonic stem cell research paper

Example Opening Claims Against Stem Cell Research. Since stem cell research often uses embryos and must destroy them, it is a science based on murder. Even if stem cell research goes forward, it will only be available to the rich and elite, leaving the poor to die painfully. Embryonic Stem Cell Research Essay Nowadays, because of the technology and the remarkable evolution, there has been a solution for everything. Especially the many solutions that newly emerging for different diseases of our modern times. Aug 14,  · In –, governments worldwide were beginning to draft proposals and guidelines to control stem cell research and the handling of embryonic tissues and reach universal policies. In , the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) drafted .


Embryonic Stem Cell Research Paper Sample for Medical Health Majors


This sample Embryonic Stem Cell Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. If you need help writing your assignment, please use our research paper writing service and buy a paper on any topic at affordable price.

Also check our tips on how to write a research papersee the lists of research paper topicsand browse research paper examples. The advent of stem cells into the public arena in raised hopes for the treatment of a host of debilitating diseases affecting many organs and tissues of the body. The stem cells on which most attention was paid were embryonic embryonic stem cell research paper cells, on account of their enormous biological potential.

However, their derivation from human embryos raised major ethical qualms, involving as it does the destruction of embryos. The emergence in of induced pluripotent stem cells added to the clamor surrounding stem cells, since these appeared to surmount the ethical problems through bypassing an origin in embryos. These stem cells are obtained by reprogramming adult body cells so that they revert to a pluripotent state and appear to have a potential akin to that of embryonic stem cells.

Embryos from which embryonic stem cells are derived may be nonviable, surplus embryos from IVF programs, embryos produced for research purposes, embryos created using somatic cell nuclear transfer, and human admixed embryos. Such pluripotency enables them, under appropriate conditions, to become all the tissues in the body. It is this latter property that is the distinguishing mark of embryonic as opposed to adult stem cells Towns and Jones These prospects were accompanied by two sets of problems: ethical and the unrealistic expectations surrounding them.

The ethical problems arise because deriving stem cells from embryos entails their destruction, an act that immediately raises the contentious question of the moral status embryonic stem cell research paper embryos. For many, the use of ESCs is repugnant, as opposed to the use of adult stem cells ASCs that are regarded as ethically neutral.

The debate on ESCs has been made far more problematic by the unrealistic expectations of the public, based on hype and exaggerations of the therapeutic potential of stem cells ASCs as well as ESCs. This has led to a massive growth in stem cell tourism, as patients and their families search for the wonder cures promised by various clinics from the injection of stem cells.

Unfortunately, most of these are not backed up by stringent peer-reviewed publications. Misconduct has also marred ASC research. Cardiologist Bodo-Eckehard Strauer claimed to have saved the life of a patient suffering from cardiogenic shock by transplanting adult autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells into a damaged artery.

Described as a global innovation, the results based on a small number of cases have been severely critiqued on a range of fundamental errors, discrepancies, and contradictions Francis et al.

Another striking debut for ESCs has been into the world of politics. These lines must have been derived from embryos surplus to the requirements of IVF programs. No new embryos could be destroyed in deriving ESCs using federal funds.

It is unfortunate that the stem cell lines already in existence, plus additional ones potentially eligible for federal research funding, failed to live up to ethical standards set by the Food and Drug Administration FDA Jonlin This landmark study demonstrated that skin cells can be reprogrammed into stem cells.

Possible uses for iPSCs in human therapy include in vitro disease modeling so-called disease in a dishhigh-throughput drug discovery and screening, regenerative therapies, and even novel reproductive techniques. The immediate response to these developments was positive, since they gave the impression of opening doors that had been shut on account of the ethical quandaries associated with ESCs and the destruction of embryos, embryonic stem cell research paper.

A very short-lived episode hit the headlines in when Hisashi Moriguchi claimed to have cured six heart failure patients with cells derived from iPSCs, embryonic stem cell research paper. It soon emerged that these claims were baseless. Together with coworkers, she had described how cells of various types, including skin, muscle, and lung cells, could be rapidly changed into an embryonic-like state by being dipped in a mild acid solution, embryonic stem cell research paper.

However, issues quickly emerged over irregularities in images, suggesting at embryonic stem cell research paper least innocent mistakes and at the worst fraud. ESCs are derived from the inner cell mass ICM of early embryos at the blastocyst stage, 5—7 days after fertilization.

At present, their extraction disrupts the ICM and therefore destroys the blastocyst. The embryos used in this way have a number of sources Jones and Whitaker These will not be transferred to a woman since they are biologically incapable of further development.

Use of these embryos is not contentious. Second, and far more important in practice, is surplus embryos created during IVF programs. While created for implantation into a woman, they are no longer required for reproductive purposes. Since these embryos were created for reproductive purposes, it is possible to procedurally separate the decision to destroy surplus embryos from the decision to use them for research.

This decreases the likelihood of exploitation and coercion. In this case, the destruction of embryos is premeditated, with research as the only end point. There is no intention that the embryos will be allowed to develop into human beings. However, societies that approve of procedures, such as IVF, prenatal diagnosis, preimplantation genetic diagnosis PGDand the creation, storage, and destruction of surplus embryos, give only limited respect to embryonic stem cell research paper embryos.

Any differences between these procedures and those producing embryos explicitly for research purposes are ones of intention. However, in the research paradigm, embryonic stem cell research paper, embryos are being produced as a means to an end, and this sets this source apart from any others. A fourth source takes the research goal further with the creation of embryos using somatic cell nuclear transfer SCNT.

The difference between this source and the creation of research embryos using IVF lies in the way in which the embryos are created. This in turn may lead to the exploitation of poorer women, who would be the most likely to sell their eggs.

While this discussion has centered on the use of embryos for research, it is pivotal for the ESC debate, since ESCs can only be obtained from these embryos. While the latter have the potential of producing human individuals totipotentin vitro blastocysts have no such potential in the laboratory. Those on which research is conducted never acquire this potential, since research on human embryos beyond 14 days is currently forbidden.

Regulations governing ESCs fall into four dominant positions. These were designated A to D by Towns and Jones Position A encompasses countries that prohibit all embryo research and therefore the extraction of ESCs.

The groups are Very Restrictive corresponding to APermissive Cand Very Permissive Dwith embryonic stem cell research paper categories of Restrictions by Default where legislation is not explicit but national practices are quite restrictive in practice and Unlegislated where there is no legislation on human ESCs.

Such a stance would also be expected to disapprove of IVF, the production of surplus embryos, and the derivation of ESCs from these embryos. It neglects any interests beyond those of the very early embryo, including those with fertility problems. The intention of position B Restrictive Compromise was to allow some research on human embryos, while aiming to protect embryos. This was achieved by allowing research only on stem cell lines already in existence, embryonic stem cell research paper, since the embryos from which these lines had been extracted had previously been destroyed.

The destruction of any further embryos was forbidden. However, these restrictive ESC guidelines fail to protect the large numbers of embryos destroyed daily by IVF procedures in fertility clinics.

This allows both the utilization and extraction of new ESCs and eliminates arbitrary time limits on extraction. It accepts the destruction of already existing embryos no longer required within IVF programs.

These in vitro blastocysts have no future as human individuals, since the decision has already been taken that they will not be donated to other individuals within an IVF program. This position therefore embryonic stem cell research paper to improve the health status of individuals suffering from common debilitating conditions, alongside providing early embryos with the care and respect due to human tissue. Hybrid embryos true hybrids are those created by the fusion of gametes from human and nonhuman animals to produce an embryo which is a genetic mix of the contributing species.

Cytoplasmic hybrids cybrids are created by performing SCNT to introduce a somatic cell from one species e. Cybrids allow the creation of stem cells from adult somatic cells without the use of human eggs.

This enables stem cell lines to be derived from individuals with diseases that may subsequently be studied in the resulting stem cells. Chimeric embryos embryonic stem cell research paper created by inserting stem cells from one species into an existing embryo of another e.

The aim is to produce particular types of stem cell lines or to examine how stem cells develop in the embryo. The arguments of opponents vary but include the unnaturalness of the procedures and the crossing of species boundaries. For some, they are morally repugnant and violate human dignity. While they may promote a mechanical view of the world, they are not devoid of moral boundaries. Moral repugnance is an unpredictable basis for moral judgments, although sentiments of disgust are deeply ingrained warning signs that alert us to moral wrongs.

In spite of such assurances, especially by those opposed to the use of ESCs, there remain a series of practical and ethical considerations. Not only this, ESCs are currently considered to have greater therapeutic potential and to be much closer to being translated into a clinical setting than iPSCs.

Consequently, further methodological and functional studies are needed to improve the reprogramming technique to generate iPSCs with therapeutic potential more akin to ESCs. This means that ESCs are still needed to understand the basic mechanism of pluripotency and self-renewal see Bridge for details.

A wide array of ESC lines is needed for three reasons. Second, it is important that ESC lines are able to differentiate into the tissues of interest, embryonic stem cell research paper. If they are to be used in regenerative medicine, embryonic stem cell research paper, it is necessary for them to follow a desired lineage of differentiation. Hence, instead of circumventing the moral problems associated with ESC research, it is becoming increasingly clear that far more work is required using ESCs as an important comparator for future iPSC research.

An unexpected future ethical dilemma associated with iPSC research would emerge if it becomes feasible to utilize human iPSCs to produce sperm and eggs.

Were this to eventuate, these could theoretically be used to create embryos. Embryonic stem cell research paper this lies in the future, the potential to produce iPSC-derived embryos would raise familiar questions about the moral status of these embryos. Even if this possibility never sees the light of day, it demonstrates that the emergence of iPSCs has not put an end to ethical deliberation.

This looks unlikely, unless another major breakthrough occurs, embryonic stem cell research paper. This is not the last word ethically, although it strongly suggests that the debate over ESCs will continue unabated. Free research papers are not written to satisfy your specific instructions.

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Stem Cell Research - Journal - Elsevier

 

embryonic stem cell research paper

 

Stem Cell Research is dedicated to publishing high-quality manuscripts focusing on the biology and applications of stem cell research. Submissions to Stem Cell Research, may cover all aspects of stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, tissue-specific stem cells, cancerstem cells, developmental studies, genomics and translational research. This sample Embryonic Stem Cell Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. If you need help writing your assignment, please use our research paper writing service and buy a paper on any topic at affordable price. Also check our tips on how to write a research paper, see the lists of research paper topics, and browse research paper examples. Aug 14,  · In –, governments worldwide were beginning to draft proposals and guidelines to control stem cell research and the handling of embryonic tissues and reach universal policies. In , the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) drafted .